Daniel 7:8

The New World Encyclopedia says this about Antiochus IV Epihenes:

Antiochus regarded himself as Zeus (hence his title, epiphanes, meaning ‘manifestation of’), the Greek God. He gave lavishly to Greek temples, including the Temple of Zeus in Athens. His self-view as the supreme God meant that he saw himself as having power over all the religions in his realm. He thus tried to systematically change the traditions of the Jews, based on the laws of Moses, to make them conform to Greek beliefs. He built a gymnasium in Jerusalem, where instead of learning their ancient law, the priests engaged in wrestling contests in the Greek fashion, which meant they were naked. Those who were circumcised endeavored to hide this. Antiochus’ programs of Hellenization may even have involved altering the scriptures by, for example, introducing Greek cosmology into the Hebrew Scriptures. Texts say that people caught reading the Torah were punished, even killed; Sabbath observation was abolished and circumcision banned on pain of death. Josephus’ account describes this as follows:

Now Antiochus was not satisfied either with his unexpected taking the city, or with its pillage, or with the great slaughter he had made there; but being overcome with his violent passions, and remembering what he had suffered during the siege, he compelled the Jews to dissolve the laws of their country, and to keep their infants uncircumcised, and to sacrifice swine’s flesh upon the altar; against which they all opposed themselves, and the most approved among them were put to death. Bacchides also, who was sent to keep the fortresses, having these wicked commands, joined to his own natural barbarity, indulged all sorts of the extremist wickedness, and tormented the worthiest of the inhabitants, man by man, and threatened their city every day with open destruction, till at length he provoked the poor sufferers by the extremity of his wicked doings to avenge themselves (War, 1: 2; Whiston, V3: 11).

The 2nd Book of Maccabees records that the compliant priests diverted Temple funds to pay for the polis activities, such as “international games and dramatic competitions” and “ceased to show any interest” in Temple affairs (see Johnson, 102). Maccabees Antiouchus’ influence was strengthened because of rivalry among contenders for the High Priesthood in Jerusalem. A contest for power between Onias III and Jason (brothers) resulted in the former setting up a rival Temple at Heliopolis in Egypt and the latter becoming High Priest. By cooperating with Antiochus, Jason (which was the Greek name he adopted) was able to remain in office from 175 B.C.E. until 172 B.C.E.. However, while Antiochus was campaigning in Egypt, a faction of the Jewish leadership succeeded in deposing Jason, sending him into exile. Other sources say that Antiochus engineered the change of High Priest because his successor, Menelaus (a non-practicing Jew) promised more tribute and to speed the Hellenization process. Antiochus was demanding more and more cash to pay for his wars. Many Jews already saw the High Priesthood as too compromised to maintain their respect. Jason allied himself with anti-Hellenic Jews and, with their support, was able to re-take the office in 168 B.C.E., also expelling Antiochus’ troops. This was actually a rebellion against Antiochus, who responded swiftly.

In 168 B.C.E. or 169 B.C.E. Antiochus marched to Jerusalem, slew Jason (last of the Zadokite High Priests) and dedicated the Temple to Zeus, erecting an image of Zeus in his own likeness on the altar, and, according to some sources, sacrificed a pig in the Temple. This is known to Jews as the ‘great desecration’ or ‘abomination of desecration’ (from Daniel 11: 31 & 12: 11). The Temple’s sacred treasures, including “the golden candlesticks, and the golden altar” were robbed (V2: 87). Copies of the Torah were destroyed, as were buildings. He re-built the old city of David as a Seleucid fortress, dominating the rest of the city. Sources are confused about exactly when the desecration took place. Menelaus was restored to the High Priesthood (see discussion at [1]. Most have Antiochus visiting Jerusalem twice, perhaps as early as 166 B.C.E. for the first and as late as 169 B.C.E. for the second. Josephus describes him as robbing on both occasions (Whiston, V2: 87)[2].

Antiochus was a ‘type’ for the beast who is the boastful horn.  When we look at the actions of the Beast in both Daniel and revelation we see an evil ruler who sets himself up against God’s anointed.  this has happened at various times in history, notably in the 2oth Century with Adolf Hitler.  Beasts rise and beasts fall.  It is my opinion that Satan raises up Hitler and Antiochus types on a regular basis, but none of them will reach their full potential for destruction until the end of all things.

Daniel 7:8

 8 “While I was thinking about the horns, there before me was another horn, a little one, which came up among them; and three of the first horns were uprooted before it. This horn had eyes like the eyes of a human being and a mouth that spoke boastfully.

Questions

  1. Who does the boastful horn move aside?
  2. How is the horn described?
  3. What kinds of boats might a ‘beast’ make?
  4. How was Antiochus a type of beast?
  5. Are there leaders in the world that you could imagine becoming more like the horn mentioned here?
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About Plymothian

I teach at Moody Bible Institute in Chicago. My interests include education, biblical studies, and spiritual formation. I have been married to Kelli since 1998 and we have two children, Daryl and Amelia. For recreation I like to run, play soccer, play board games, read and travel.
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10 Responses to Daniel 7:8

  1. Moon Jung Kim says:

    Who does the boastful horn move aside? the three of the first horns
    How is the horn described? Three horns before the last horn were pulled out by the roots. The last horn has eyes and mouth like a human and speaks boastfully.
    What kinds of boats might a ‘beast’ make? maybe a ferryboat..(Just kidding..) self centered and defiant boast against God
    How was Antiochus a type of beast? Antiochus was over proud of himself and demanding more without content of what he had got already. He was destructive because of his unsatisfied mind and wicked heart.
    Are there leaders in the world that you could imagine becoming more like the horn mentioned here? Kim Jung Il the leader in North Korea….!!

  2. Rebecca Langer says:

    1. Who does the boastful horn move aside?
    three of the first horns
    2. How is the horn described?
    It had eyes of a human being and it made a lot of boasts.
    3. What kinds of boats might a ‘beast’ make?
    The kind that would draw people into its plots. He might claim deity.
    4. How was Antiochus a type of beast?
    He desecrated the things that were holy and he claimed to be a god.
    5. Are there leaders in the world that you could imagine becoming more like the horn mentioned here?
    I am sure if I took good looks at them, I could, but right now none of them are coming to mind.

  3. Sokloon Dy says:

    -the three horns.
    -it came up among the ten horns. it had human personality–eyes and mouth.
    -that he’s the greatest and strongest.
    -Antiochus defiled the Temple. he saw himself as Zeus and all powerful.
    -i dont really know..

  4. Melisa Guiles says:

    1. It moves aside three of the other horns.
    2. It is little with human eyes and a mouth.
    3. boasts of greatness.
    4. He did evil things to the Jews and exerted his power over them.
    5. There aren’t any that come to my mind, although I’m sure there are some.

  5. Cassie Clark says:

    1.The three larger horns
    2.It had eyes of a human being and a mouth that spoke boastfully
    3.Boasts of power and might
    4.He acted in complete disregard for the Jewish people

  6. HeeJin,Choi says:

    1.Who does the boastful horn move aside? The three of the first horns
    2.How is the horn described? It had eys and a boastful mouth like those of a human being.
    3.What kinds of boats might a ‘beast’ make?
    – saying that I will devour the other horns.
    4.How was Antiochus a type of beast?
    – He defiled people and things of God and blasphemied by proclaiming himself as the supreme god.
    5.Are there leaders in the world that you could imagine becoming more like the horn mentioned here?
    – Leaders of cults all over the world.

  7. Sandra Tindle says:

    1. The boastful horn moves aside the three little ones.
    2. Eyes like a human and a boastful mouth.
    3. Boasts about itself and its greatness.
    4. He was selfish, and he was out to destroy the Jews for his own sake.
    5. Leaders who are in a lot of power and who try to take down people who do not “worship” them.

  8. HyeJin Lee says:

    1.Who does the boastful horn move aside?
    The three of the first horn.
    2.How is the horn described?
    It had eyes like a human and a mouth which was boastful.
    3.What kinds of boasts might a ‘beast’ make?
    It has eyes and a mouth that no other horns have, and it is greater than others.
    4.How was Antiochus a type of beast?
    He was selfish and destroyed God’s people and things that were holy.
    5.Are there leaders in the world that you could imagine becoming more like the horn mentioned here?
    Most of leaders in the world becomes like the horn mentioned here by chopping their own ice.

  9. aaron wright says:

    1. the three horns of the first born
    2 a human eye and a boastful mouth
    3. boasts about its own greatness
    4. called himself god! and harshly treated the Jews

  10. Kristin Goffinet says:

    1) It moves aside the three first horns as well as another little one.
    2) It had eyes like a human and a mouth that boasts
    3) A beast would boast about how great he is, probably even claiming that he is greater than God, or at least doesn’t need him for sucess.
    4) He called himself Zeus, and he killed and slaughtered people.
    5) Yes, I think many leaders today think of themselves as gods, whether they admit it or not.

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